What Are Footnotes?
Footnotes are supplementary pieces of information that support your writing. Footnotes usually appear at the bottom of the page. Each footnote is preceded by a number that also appears as a superscript after the corresponding material on that page. Footnotes can include anything from a citation to parenthetical information, outside sources, copyright permissions, background information, and anything in between,
- Footnotes must be placed at the bottom of the page separated from the text by a solid line one to two inches long.
- Begin at the left page margin, directly below the solid line.
- Single-space footnotes that are more than one line long.
- Include one double-spaced line between each note.
- Most software packages automatically space footnotes at the bottom of the page depending on their length. It is acceptable if the note breaks within a sentence and carries the remainder into the footnote area of the next page. Do not indicate the continuation of a footnote.
- Number all footnotes with Arabic numerals. You may number notes consecutively within each chapter starting over with number 1 for the first note in each chapter, or you may number notes consecutively throughout the entire document.
- Footnote numbers must precede the note and be placed slightly above the line (superscripted). Leave no space between the number and the note.
- While footnotes should be located at the bottom of the page, do not place footnotes in a running page footer, as they must remain within the page margins.
Tips for Writing Footnotes
- If your supplementary information is longer than a paragraph, consider using an appendix instead of a footnote.
- Avoid unnecessary footnotes: if they don’t cite your sources or improve your readers’ understanding of the topic, they’re probably not necessary.
Insert footnotes and endnotes